Differences Between Reinforcement and Punishment This educational and amusing video demonstrates examples of positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Shaping with successive approximations is used to elicit a behavior that has never been displayed, or rarely occurs, by building the desired behavior progressively and rewarding each improvement on the behavior until the desired behavior is reached. Sundelthe following steps must be taken to shape a behavior:
Reinforcement theory, as proposed by Harvard psychologist B.
Skinner, suggests that on-time arrivals would significantly increase and late arrivals would become very rare. According to this theory, environmental consequences are powerful tools that managers can use to shape behavior.
Skinner observed that either positive or negative behaviors can be targeted, but in a business setting, focusing on rewarding desired behavior helps employees develop positive habits and is less likely to foster resentment than a more punitive approach.
Set Clear and Reasonable Expectations The use of reinforcement to motivate employees should be a positive experience for both of you.
Unclear task expectations and evaluation standards frustrate employees and reduce the tendency to attempt the desired behavior. Imagine your response to a review in which you were told to "do better" without any details.
Similarly, rewarding only impossible or extremely difficult tasks may lead to anger and a sense of helplessness and result in worse performances than before you implemented a reinforcement program. Expecting absolute perfection, or a consistent doubling of sales, for example, is likely unreasonable and may result in increasing errors and declining sales as employees give up.
Identify Strong Motivators Working with employees to identify personalized motivators, or reinforcements, is most likely to produce the desired results.
A single, childless man is not apt to work to earn a week of free babysitting, just as a vegetarian may not appreciate a gift certificate to the local steak house. On the other hand, your employee might surpass your expectations attempting to earn a reward that she has chosen.
If allowing employees to choose is impractical, consider offering a set of choices from which they can select should they meet the required conditions.
Motivating rewards are essential to the success of your program because they have to be tempting enough for employees to work to change their behavior. Encouraging Desirable Behaviors Most managers want to encourage positive employee behavior such as punctuality, strong teamwork and quality production.
According to reinforcement theory, choosing one positive attribute to target at a time and applying positive reinforcement techniques with a focus on extinction of the negative behavior, can help you turn desirable traits into strong work habits over time.
According to Skinner, extinction of undesired behavior results from the absence of positive reinforcement, not from punishment. This means offering an incentive when work exceeds expectations, positive reinforcement, and focusing on extinction by withholding it or withholding additional privileges when targets are not met.
For example, you might offer a bonus for sales in excess of your weekly target, a long lunch for meeting the target and a standard lunch, withholding both the bonus and the long lunch, for failing to meet it.
Effectively Using Reinforcement Time your reinforcements carefully because different strategies yield different results.
Rewarding a behavior, such as an excellent performance, each time it occurs will quickly result in repeated performances. However, rewarding the same behavior intermittently often yields even better results as employees work harder in case the bar has been raised and is more likely to facilitate a lasting change in behavior.
Intermittent reinforcement also makes it easier to wean your employee away from her dependence on reinforcement and turn the desired behavior into a habit. Future reinforcement efforts can then be targeted to different behaviors with an expectation of similar results.This philosophy of behavioral science assumes that behavior is a consequence of environmental histories of reinforcement in applied settings there has been a resurgence of interest in Skinner's functional analysis of verbal behavior.
Influence on Beyond the box: B. F. Skinner's technology of behavior from laboratory to life. Overview of Reinforcement Theory Behaviorist B.F. Skinner derived the reinforcement theory, one of the oldest theories of motivation, as a way to explain behavior and why we do what we do. The theory may also be known as Behaviorism, or Operant Conditioning, which is still commonly taught in psychology today.
According to B.F. Skinner, "reinforcement" is anything within the environment that strengthens a behavior. In this sense he defines both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement and their affects on behavior. A positive reinforcer is one that increases the probability of.
The partial reinforcement effect (PRE) refers to the fact that: A. all partial reinforcement schedules produce less resistance to extinction than does a continuous reinforcement schedule, B. all partial reinforcement schedules are under the control of classical conditioning, C. all partial reinforcement schedules produce greater resistance to extinction than does a continuous reinforcement schedule, .
Reinforcement theory, as proposed by Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner, suggests that on-time arrivals would significantly increase and late arrivals would become very rare.
According to this theory, environmental consequences are powerful tools that managers can use to shape behavior. According to reinforcement theory, choosing one positive attribute to target at a time and applying positive reinforcement techniques with a focus on extinction of the negative behavior, can help.