However much debate has ensued as to the defining factor which caused its eventual accomplishment. There are two controversial theories which both attempt to shed light on this all important topic. Firstly there is the Eric Williams Decline Thesis found in his work Capitalism and Slavery in which he attributes the rise and decline of slavery not as an act of racial and religious control but suggests that slavery was mainly driven by economics.
Origins of the Decline Thesis[ edit ] Sultan Suleiman Iwhose reign was seen as constituting a golden age. In the Ottoman Empire[ edit ] The idea of decline first emerged among the Ottomans themselves.
Nasihatname literature was primarily concerned with order and disorder in state and society; it conceptualized the ruler as the embodiment of justice, whose duty it was to ensure that his subjects would receive that justice.
This was often expressed through the concept of the Circle of Justice Ottoman Turkish: In this conception, the provision of justice by the ruler to his subjects would allow those subjects to prosper, strengthening the ruler in turn. These writers viewed the changes which the empire had undergone as an inherently negative corruption of an idealized Suleimanic past.
However, it is now recognized that rather than simply describing objective reality, they were often utilizing the genre of decline to voice their Decline of community thesis personal complaints.
Islam as an all-encompassing civilizational category often came to be portrayed as the polar opposite of the West, whereby Western societies valued freedom, rationality, and progress while Islam valued servility, superstition, and stagnation.
Gibb and Harold Bowen, and Bernard Lewiswho adhered to a civilizational conception of Islamic decline while modifying it with the new sociological paradigm of Modernization Theory. The most prominent writer on Ottoman decline was the historian Bernard Lewis who argued that the Ottoman Empire experienced all-encompassing decline affecting government, society and civilization.
He laid out his views in the article, "Some Reflections on the Decline of the Ottoman Empire,"  which developed into the mainstream opinion of Orientalist scholars of the mid-twentieth century.
However, the article is now highly criticized and no longer considered accurate by modern historians.
The first ten sultans of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I to Suleiman the Magnificent were of excellent personal quality, while those who came after Suleiman were without exception "incompetents, degenerates, and misfits," a result of the Kafes system of succession, whereby dynastic princes no longer gained experience in provincial government before coming to the throne.
Faulty leadership at the top led to decay in all branches of government: The Ottoman military lost its strength and began to experience defeats on the battlefield. They ceased to keep up with the advances of European military science, and consequently suffered territorial losses.
As the Ottoman state and society was geared towards constant expansion, their sudden failure to achieve new conquests left the empire unable to adapt to its new relationship with Europe.
Economically, the empire was undermined by the discovery of the New World and the subsequent shift in the economic balance between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Europe, as well as the voyages of discovery which brought Europeans to India, and led to a decline in the volume of trade passing through Ottoman ports.
In addition, the Price Revolution led to the destabilization of Ottoman coinage and a severe fiscal crisis, which proved disastrous when paired with the rapidly rising costs of warfare.
As the cavalry army of the Ottomans became obsolete, the Timar System of land tenure which had sustained it fell into obsolescence, while the corrupt bureaucracy was unable to replace it with a functional alternative.
Instead, tax-farming was introduced, leading to corruption and oppression of the peasantry, and agricultural decline. Ottoman economic and military backwardness was extenuated by their closed-mindedness and unwillingness to adopt European innovations, as well as an increasing disdain for practical science.
Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire "reverted to a medieval state, with a medieval mentality and a medieval economy — but with the added burden of a bureaucracy and a standing army which no medieval state had ever had to bear. The decline thesis was rooted in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century conception of distinct "civilizations" as units of historical analysis, and thus explained Ottoman weakness with reference not only to its geopolitics but also defined it in social, economic, cultural, and moral terms.
This all-encompassing notion of the decline of Ottoman and more widely, Islamic civilization became the framework within which Ottoman history from the sixteenth century onward was understood. The changing nature and adaptability of Ottoman state and society; 2.
According to Linda Darling, "because we know that eventually the Ottomans became a weaker power and finally disappeared, every earlier difficulty they experienced becomes a "seed of decline," and Ottoman successes and sources of strength vanish from the record.
According to Jane Hathaway, this focus on the "golden age" had a distorting effect on its history: Furthermore, "complaint about the times" was in fact a literary trope in Ottoman society, and also existed during the period of the so-called "golden age" of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Thus, these works should not be taken as evidence of actual Ottoman decline. On the contrary, Ottoman Valide Sultansprincesses, and concubines were successfully able to fortify dynastic rule during periods of instability, and played an important role in dynastic legitimization.
Supposedly, the once-feared Janissary Corps became corrupted as they increasingly earned privileges for themselves, gaining the right to marry, sire children, and enroll those children into the corps.
Rather than maintaining strict military discipline, they began to take up professions as merchants and shopkeepers in order to supplement their income, thus losing their military edge. However, it is now understood that janissary participation in the economy was not limited to the post-Suleimanic period.
Janissaries were engaging in commerce as early as the fifteenth century, without any apparent impact on their military discipline. The breakdown of the Timar System is now seen not as a result of incompetent administration, but as a conscious policy meant to help the empire adapt to the increasingly monetized economy of the late sixteenth century.
Thus, far from being a symptom of decline, this was part of a process of military and fiscal modernization. They maintained full self-sufficiency in gunpowder production until the late eighteenth century, and with rare and brief exceptions were continually able to produce enough cannon and muskets to supply their whole armed forces as well as surplus stockpiles.Putnam’s main thesis is that the amount of social capital in the United States is declining.
That is, Americans are longer tied together as closely as they once were. "Decline Thesis" believe that slavery's faltering profitability mandated abolition, whereas the opposition tends to reject the very notion of economic hardship in the West Indies. Recent. The Ottoman decline thesis or Ottoman decline paradigm (Turkish: Osmanlı Gerileme Tezi) refers to a now-obsolete historical narrative which once played a dominant role .
Build Your Thesis Statement > Log in. Search Community Service Essay Examples. 32 total results. A Critique of Community Service Programs. words. The Reasons for the Gradual Decline of Interest in Community Service Over the Years. 1, words. Decline-of-Community Thesis vances have freed urbanites from traditional spatial constraints and ex- panded their range of social choices.
In view of the degree of mobility. Although the decline-of-community thesis has received considerable attention from urban sociologists, most of the empirical evidence brought to bear on the thesis has been cross-sectional rather than longitudinal.
In the present study this deficiency is overcome.