Bibliography Glossary of Research Terms This glossary is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts when reading, interpreting, and evaluating scholarly research in the social sciences. Also included are general words and phrases defined within the context of how they apply to research in the social and behavioral sciences. Acculturation -- refers to the process of adapting to another culture, particularly in reference to blending in with the majority population [e.
Vadmary Performance appraisal is a process by which organizations evaluate employee performance based on preset standards. The main purpose of appraisals is to help managers effectively staff companies and use human resources, and, ultimately, to improve productivity.
When conducted properly, appraisals serve that purpose by: In the early part of this century performance appraisals were used in larger organizations mostly for administrative purposes, such as making promotions and determining salaries and bonuses.
Since the s, however, companies and researchers have increasingly stressed the use of employee evaluations for motivational and organizational planning purposes.
Indeed, for many companies performance appraisal has become an important tool for maximizing the effectiveness of all aspects of the organization, from staffing and development to production and customer service.
That shift of focus was accompanied during the s, s, and s by a number of changes in the design and use of appraisals. Those changes reflected new research and attitudes about organizational behavior and theory. In general, employee evaluation systems have recognized the importance of individual needs and cultural influences in achieving organizational objectives.
For example, traditional appraisal systems were often closed, meaning that individuals were not allowed to see their own reports. Since the mids, most companies have rejected closed evaluations in favor of open appraisals that allow workers to benefit from criticism and praise.
Another change in appraisal techniques since the mids has been a move toward greater employee participation. This includes self-analysis, employee input into evaluations, feedback, and goal setting by workers.
Appraisal systems have also become more results-oriented, which means that appraisals are more focused on a process of establishing benchmarks, setting individual objectives, measuring performance, and then judging success based on the goals, standards, and accomplishments.
Likewise, appraisals have become more multifaceted, incorporating a wide range of different criteria and approaches to ensure an effective assessment process and to help determine the reasons behind employees' performance.
Performance appraisals and standards have also reflected a move toward decentralization. In other words, the responsibility for managing the entire appraisal process has moved closer to the employees who are being evaluated; whereas past performance reviews were often developed and administered by centralized human resources departments or upper-level managers, appraisals in the s were much more likely to be conducted by line managers directly above the appraisee.
Because of the movement toward more decentralized approaches, performance appraisals also began to involve not only lower-level managers, but also coworkers and even customers.
Known as multirater feedback or degree feedback, this form of performance appraisal uses confidential assessments from customers, managers, coworkers, and the individual employees themselves. Furthermore, the appraisal process has become increasingly integrated into complementary organizational initiatives, such as training and mentoring.
In addition to reflecting new ideas about personal needs and cultural influences, performance appraisal systems evolved during the late s to meet strict new federal regulations and to conform to labor union demands.
A flurry of legislation during the s and s, for example, prohibited the use of performance appraisals to discriminate against members of selected minority groups.
Other laws established restrictions related to privacy and freedom of information. The end result of new laws and labor demands was that companies were forced to painstakingly design and document their appraisal programs to avoid costly disputes and litigation.
Finally, with the booming economy in the late s, many managers throughout the country began to move away from performance appraisals, according to Marilyn Moats Kennedy in Across the Board.The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias // Purdue Writing . The Purdue Writing Lab Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing Lab.
This area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. If you’re writing a research essay, a scientific report, a literary analysis, or almost any other type of academic paper, avoiding bias in writing is especially crucial.
You need to present factual information and informed assertions that are supported with credible evidence.
Avoiding Psychological Bias in Decision Making. By the. Mind Tools Content Team. Below, we outline five psychological biases that are common in business decision making. We also look at how you can overcome them, and thereby make better decisions. 1.
Confirmation Bias. In the past, it was considered acceptable to simply refer to a person as he or him or rutadeltambor.comr, along with the integration of women into the workforce came more respect for women as individuals, and it is expected that we show that respect in our writing.
Avoid writing that is awkward for the sake of gender equity. Your goal is to avoid gender bias in your writing.
In most cases, however, it is not the goal of your message to advance the cause of gender equity. Avoid writing that is legalistic or that makes gender or gender equity .