Greco-Roman civilizations dominated Classical antiquitystarting with the reappearance of writing in Ancient Greece at around BC, generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization and immensely influential on language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science and the arts. Those values were inherited by the Roman Republic established in BC, having expanded from Italy, centered in the Mediterranean Seauntil the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent around the year After a period of civil wars, emperor Constantine I shifted the capital from Rome to the Greek town Byzantium inthen renamed Constantinople modern Istanbulhaving legalized Christianity.
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music.
Athens was a powerful Hellenic city-state and governed itself with an early form of direct democracy invented by Cleisthenes ; the citizens of Athens voted on legislation and executive bills themselves. Athens was the home of Socrates Platoand the Platonic Academy.
By the late 6th century BC, all the Greek city states in Asia Minor had been incorporated into the Persian Empirewhile the latter had made territorial gains in the Balkans such as MacedonThracePaeoniaetc.
In the course of the 5th century BC, some of the Greek city states attempted to overthrow Persian rule in the Ionian Revoltwhich failed. This sparked the first Persian invasion of mainland Greece.
At some point during the ensuing Greco-Persian Warsnamely during the Second Persian invasion of Greeceand precisely after the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisiumalmost all of Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun by the Persians,  but the Greek city states reached a decisive victory at the Battle of Plataea.
With the end of the Greco-Persian wars, the Persians were eventually decisively forced to withdraw from their territories in Europe. The Greco-Persian Wars and the victory of the Greek city states directly influenced the entire further course of European history and would set its further tone.
Some Greek city-states formed the Delian League to continue fighting Persia, but Athens' position as leader of this league led Sparta to form the rival Peloponnesian League. The Peloponnesian Wars ensued, and the Peloponnesian League was victorious.
Subsequently, discontent with Spartan hegemony led to the Corinthian War and the defeat of Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra. Hellenic infighting left Greek city states vulnerable, and Philip II of Macedon united the Greek city states under his control.
The son of Philip II, known as Alexander the Greatinvaded neighboring Persiatoppled and incorporated its domains, as well as invading Egypt and going as far off as Indiaincreasing contact with people and cultures in these regions that marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
After the death of Alexander, his empire split into multiple kingdoms ruled by his generals, the Diadochi. The Diadochi fought against each other only three major kingdoms remained: Ptolemaic Egyptthe Seleucid Empire and Macedonia kingdom.
These kingdoms spread Greek culture to regions as far away as Bactria. The rise of Rome[ edit ] Cicero addresses the Roman Senate to denounce Catiline 's conspiracy to overthrow the Republicby Cesare Maccari Much of Greek learning was assimilated by the nascent Roman state as it expanded outward from Italy, taking advantage of its enemies' inability to unite: First governed by kingsthen as a senatorial republic the Roman RepublicRome finally became an empire at the end of the 1st century BC, under Augustus and his authoritarian successors.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in AD, under the emperor Trajan The Roman Empire had its centre in the Mediterranean, controlling all the countries on its shores; the northern border was marked by the Rhine and Danube rivers. Pax Romanaa period of peace, civilisation and an efficient centralised government in the subject territories ended in the 3rd century, when a series of civil wars undermined Rome's economic and social strength.
In the 4th century, the emperors Diocletian and Constantine were able to slow down the process of decline by splitting the empire into a Western part with a capital in Rome and an Eastern part with the capital in Byzantium, or Constantinople now Istanbul.
Whereas Diocletian severely persecuted Christianity, Constantine declared an official end to state-sponsored persecution of Christians in with the Edict of Milanthus setting the stage for the Church to become the state church of the Roman Empire in about Decline of the Roman Empire[ edit ] Main articles: Gibbon said that the adoption of Christianity, meant belief in a better life after death, and therefore made people lazy and indifferent to the present.
Bowersock has remarked,  "we have been obsessed with the fall: Some other notable dates are the Battle of Adrianople inthe death of Theodosius I in the last time the Roman Empire was politically unifiedthe crossing of the Rhine in by Germanic tribes after the withdrawal of the legions to defend Italy against Alaric Ithe death of Stilicho infollowed by the disintegration of the western legions, the death of Justinian Ithe last Roman Emperor who tried to reconquer the west, inand the coming of Islam after Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the changes can more accurately be described as a complex transformation.
Late Antiquity and Migration Period[ edit ] Main articles:History of Southeast Asia: History of Southeast Asia from prehistoric times to the contemporary period. This vast area is situated east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China.
It consists of a continental projection and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east of the mainland. Learn more about the region in this article.
The 16th and 17th centuries launched the age of Western colonial expansion with Spanish and Portuguese trade and conquests in Africa, Asia and the Americas, with Dutch, French and English traders racing to catch up in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 14th century Ottoman rule came to cover western Asia Minor, and by the end of the century Ottoman forces had crossed over into the Ottomans were still generally feared by Europeans, at least up to the Egypt, Arabia and Iraq in the late 18th century).
The early 19th century saw military pressure from Austria and Russia only.
|Early society and accomplishments||The Bearkat History Club has a large student membership with its own officers and organizes a wide variety of fun and educational activities, including: Phi Alpha Theta organizes variety of events including training seminars and offers scholarships to attend the national Phi Alpha Theta biennial convention.|
|The Tragedies that Befell the Five Civilized Tribes that were Forced to Trek the Trail of Tears Usually, the history of Native American tribes when they interact with Europeans is a tale of domination, slavery, displacement, and death —of the Indians.|
|Namibia - History | rutadeltambor.com||Anti-miscegenation laws Laws banning "race-mixing" were enforced in Nazi Germanyin certain U. All these laws primarily banned marriage between spouses of different racially or ethnically defined groups, which was termed "amalgamation" or "miscegenation" in the U.|
|Timeline of the Napoleonic era Napoleon 's retreat from Russia in The war swings decisively against the French Empire The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from to pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon Iagainst a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitionsfinanced and usually led by the United Kingdom.|
Overview. During the Neolithic era (starting at c. BCE.) and the time of the Indo-European migrations (starting at c. BCE.) Europe saw massive migrations from east and southeast which also bring agriculture, new technologies and the Indo-European languages, primarily through the areas of the Balkan peninsula and the Black sea..
Some of the best-known civilizations of the late. During the Long 19th Century, England, France, Germany and other European states used their military and industrial strength to seize territories in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Ocean and subjugate native peoples living in these territories.
History of the Jews in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, and the United States from the early-eighteenth century to recent times.
Emancipation, assimilation, religious reform, antisemitism, Zionism, socialism, the Holocaust, and modern Israel are the major themes.