Employees who work outside of Seattle How do new employers determine the number of employees? For employers that did not have any employees during the previous calendar year, the employer schedule will be calculated based upon the average number of employees employed per calendar week during the first 90 calendar days of the current year of business. If an employer has both Seattle and out-of-state employees, does the employer need to count all employees to determine tier size? To determine schedule, should the employer consider each of these businesses as completely separate from one another, or do they count as one business?
Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem.
The legislative history of federal crack sentencing laws, for example, provides reason "to suspect that regardless of the objectives Congress was pursuing, it would have shown more restraint in fashioning the crack penalties or more interest in amending them in ensuing years, if the penalties did not apply almost exclusively to blacks.
Politicians have been able to reap the electoral rewards of endorsing harsh drug policies because the group that suffered most from those policies-black Americans-lacked the numbers to use the political process to secure a different strategy.
It could have restricted prison to only the most serious drug offenders e. Instead, federal and state governments embraced harsh penal sanctions to battle the use of drugs and their sale to consumers. But the choice of arrest and imprisonment as the primary anti-drug strategy evokes the infamous phrase from the Vietnam War: A Human Rights Framework For the War on Drugs In a fair, equitable, and non-discriminatory criminal justice system, sanctions should be imposed equally on offending populations.
Yet the racial patterns of persons arrested and incarcerated on drug charges are distantly related, at best, to racial patterns of drug offending. There may be explanations for the disparate impact, but can it be reconciled with principles of equal protection and non-discrimination?
United States Law Drug laws are race-neutral on their face. Their enforcement is also ostensibly race-neutral, with law enforcement officials insisting they enforce the law without bias and in response to community concerns.
Under longstanding constitutional jurisprudence in the United States, facially race-neutral governmental policies do not violate the guarantee of equal protection unless there is both discriminatory impact and discriminatory purpose.
As Professor Lawrence Tribe has noted, the U. Supreme Court has decided that every lawsuit involving claims of racial discrimination directed at facially race-neutral rules would be conducted as a search for a "bigoted-decision-maker".
If such actors cannot be found-and the standards for finding them are tough indeed-then there has been no violation of the equal protection clause. Harsher sentences for crack cocaine offenses compared to powder have repeatedly passed that test, with the courts easily deciding that legislators were pursuing a legitimate goal in trying to curtail drug abuse and that more severe sentences for crack were rationally related to that goal.
As law professor David Cole has observed, racial inequalities in the criminal justice system "do not step from explicit and intentional race or class discrimination, but they are problems of inequality nonetheless. It offers no relief from high rates of black incarceration that have been produced by "racial politics, not by a crime wave,"  and that reflect as well as contribute to the perpetuation of white dominance.
Tied to the anachronistic requirement of intent, equal protection jurisprudence has not been able to provide relief to victims of ostensibly color-blind practices that so deeply prejudice black Americans.
It has thus failed to achieve one of its central purposes: Racial Discrimination Under International Human Rights Law Equality among all people, including among persons of different races, has been deemed "the most important principle imbuing and inspiring the concept of human rights.
The equality inherent in all human beings regardless of race and the concomitant right of all human beings to be protected against racial discrimination is affirmed in the core human rights treaties that have followed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is the most complete expression of the international community's commitment to the principle of racial equality and the right to be free of racial discrimination. Although the Committee "merely observes and comments on States Parties' practices, the comments should be acted on accordingly.
The Committee's country-specific observations and general comments may be considered the official "jurisprudence" of ICERD. The Committee does not have any power to compel a State to accept and act on its recommendations and there is no system of sanctions for States who refuse to do so.
The Committee has reviewed two United States periodic reports,  but has never directly addressed racial discrimination in the U. It defines the prohibited discrimination as: The Committee has explained that "the definition of racial discrimination in Article 1 expressly extends beyond measures which are explicitly discriminatory to encompass measures which are discriminatory in fact and effect.
Compliance with ICERD requires ensuring that domestic legislation prohibits all forms of racial discrimination as defined by the treaty.
Inthe Committee recommended that the United States take the appropriate measures to review legislation and policies to "ensure effective protections against any form of racial discrimination and any unjustifiably disparate impact.
The Committee noted that the definition of racial discrimination used in [U. In this regard, the Committee notes that indirect-or de facto-discrimination occurs where an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of a particular racial, ethnic or national origin at a disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.
Under ICERD, an adverse racially disparate impact becomes prohibited discrimination when the impact is unjustifiable.In the United States, income inequality, or the gap between the rich and everyone else, has been growing markedly by every major statistical measure for the past 30 years. General Overviews.
While a detailed summary of the group-centered, “pluralist” tradition of political research lies beyond the scope of this article, pluralism’s critics have laid perhaps the richest theoretical foundations for how interest group politics enhance inequality in the United States.
Income inequality refers to the extent to which income is distributed in an uneven manner among a population. In the United States, income inequality, or the gap between the rich and everyone else, has been growing markedly, by every major statistical measure, for some 30 years.
A new report from the famed economist puts the blame for slower economic growth on inequality. Once you look at the problem this way, it's hard to ignore and panel discussion on the topic of.
U.S. income inequality has worsened significantly in the past 30 years. What is the cause, what can be done about it, and how does it affect you? household income increased percent for the wealthiest 1 percent of households.
It rose 65 percent for the top fifth. The United States has lost 20 percent of its factory jobs since Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, provides the nation with a safe, flexible, and stable monetary and financial system.